census geography

Python Geocoding Take 2 – US Addresses

Python Geocoding Take 1 – International Addresses I discussed my recent adventures with geocoding addresses outside the US. In contrast, there are countless options for batch geocoding addresses within the United States. I’ll discuss a few of those options here, but will focus primarily on the US Census Geocoder and a Python script I’ve written to batch match addresses using their API. The code and documentation is available on my lab’s resources page.

A Few Different Options

ESRI’s geocoding services allow you (with an account) to access their geocoding servers through tools in the ArcToolbox, or you can write a script and access them through an API. QGIS has a third-party plugin for accessing Google’s services (2500 records a day free) or the Open Streetmap. You can still do things the old fashioned way, by downloading geocoded street files and creating a matching service.

Alternatively, you can subscribe to any number of commercial or academic services where you can upload a file, do the matching, and download results. For years I’ve used the geocoding services at Texas A&M that allow you to do just that. Their rates are reasonable, or if you’re an academic institution and partner with them (place some links to their service on their website) you can request free credits for doing matches in batches.

The Census Geocoder and API, and a Python Script for Batch Geocoding

The Census Bureau’s TIGER and address files are often used as the foundational layers for building these other services, to which the service providers add refinements and improvements. You can access the Census Bureau’s services directly through the Census Geocoder, where you can match an address one at a time, or you can upload a batch of 1000 records. It returns longitude and latitude coordinates in NAD 83, and you can get names and codes for all the census geographies where the address is located. The service is pretty picky about the structure of the upload file (must be plain text, csv, with an id column and then columns with the address components in a specific order – with no other attributes allowed) but the nice thing is it requires no login and no key. It’s also public domain, so you can do whatever you want with the data you’ve retrieved. A tutorial for using it is available on our lab’s census tutorials page.

census geocoder

They also have an API with some basic documentation. You can match parsed and unparsed addresses, and can even do reverse geocoding. So I took a stab at writing a script to batch process addresses in text-delimited files (csv or txt). Unfortnately, the Census Geocoding API is not one of the services covered by the Python Geocoder that I mentioned in my previous post, but I did find another third party module called censusgeocode which provides a thin wrapper you can use. I incorporated that module into my Python 3 script, which I wrote as a function that takes the following inputs:

census_geocode(datafile,delim,header,start,addcol)
(str,str,str,int,list[int]) -> files

  • datafile – this is the name of the file you want to process (file name and extension). If you place the geocode_census_funct.py file in the same directory as your data file, then you just need to provide the name of the file. Otherwise, you need to provide the full path to the file.
  • delim – this is the delimiter or character that separates the values in your data file. Common delimiters includes commas ‘,’, tabs ‘t’, and pipes ‘|’.
  • header – here you specify whether your file has a header row, i.e. column names. Enter ‘y’ or ‘yes’ if it does, ‘n’ or ‘no’ if it doesn’t.
  • start – type 0 to specify that you want to start reading the file from the beginning. If you were previously running the script and it broke and exited for some reason, it provides an index number where it stopped reading; if that’s the case you can provide that index number here, to pick up where you left off.
  • addcol – provide a list that indicates the position number of the columns that contain the address components in your data file. For an unparsed address, you provide just one position number. For a parsed address, you provide 4 positions: address, city, state, and ZIP code. Whether you provide 1 or 4, the numbers must be supplied in brackets, as the function requires a Python list.

You can open the script in IDLE, run it to load it into memory, and then type the function with the necessary parameters in the shell to execute it. Some examples:

  • A tab-delimited, unparsed address file with a header that’s stored in the same folder as the script. Start from the beginning and the address is in the 2nd column: census_geocode('my_addresses.txt','t','y',0,[2])
  • A comma-delimited, parsed address file with no header that’s stored in the same folder as the script. Start from the beginning and the addresses are in the 2nd through 5th columns: census_geocode('addresses_to_match.csv',',','n',0,[2,3,4,5])
  • A comma-delimited, unparsed address file with a header that’s not in the same folder as the script. We ran the file before and it stopped at index 250, so restart there – the address is in the 3rd column: census_geocode('C:address_datadata1.csv',',','y',250,[3])

The beginning of the script “sets the table”: we read the address columns into variables, create the output files (one for matches, one for non-matches, and a summary report), and we handle whether or not there’s a header row. For reading the file I used Python’s CSV module. Typically I don’t use this module, as I find it’s much simpler to do the basic: read a line in, split it on a delimiter, strip whitespace, read it into a list, etc. But in this case the CSV module allows you to handle a wider array of input files; if the input data was a csv and there happened to be commas embedded in the values themselves, the CSV module easily takes care of it; if you ignore it, the parsing would get thrown off for that record.

Handling Exceptions and Server Errors

In terms of expanding my skills, the new things I had to learn were exception handling and control flows. Since the censusgeocoding module is a thin wrapper, it had no built in mechanism for retrying a match a certain number of times if the server timed out. This is an absolute necessity, because the census server often times out, is busy, or just hiccups, returning a generic error message. I had already learned how to handle crashes in my earlier geocoding experiments, where I would write the script to match and write a record one by one as it went along. It would try to do a match, but if any error was raised, it would exit that loop cleanly, write a report, and all would be saved and you could pick up where you left off. But in this case, if that server non-response error was returned I didn’t want to give up – I wanted to keep trying.

So on the outside there is a loop to try and do a match, unless any error happens, then exit the loop cleanly and wrap up. But inside there is another try loop, where we try to do a match but if we get that specific server error, continue: go back to the top of that for loop and try again. That loop begins with While True – if we successfully get to the end, then we start with the next record. If we get that server error we stay in that While loop and keep trying until we get a match, or we run out of tries (5) and write as a non-match.

error handling

In doing an actual match, the script does a parsed or unparsed match based on user input. But there was another sticking point; in some instances the API would return a matched result (we got coordinates!), but some of the objects that it returned were actually errors because of some java problem (failed to get the tract number or county name – here’s an error message instead!) To handle this, we have a for i in range loop. If we have a matched record and we don’t have a status message (that indicates an error) then we move along and grab all the info we need – the coordinates, and all the census geography where that coordinate falls, and write it out, and then that for loop ends with a break. But if we receive an error message we continue – go back to the top of that loop and try doing the match again. After 3 tries we give up and write no match.

Figuring all that out took a while – where do these loops go and what goes in them, how do I make sure that I retry a record rather than passing over it to the next one, etc. Stack Exchange to the rescue! Difference between continue, pass and break, returning to the beginning of a loop, breaking out of a nested loop, and retrying after an exception. The rest is pretty straightforward. Once the matching is done we close the files, and write out a little report that tells us how many matches we got versus fails. The Census Geocoder via the API is pretty unforgiving; it either finds a match, or it doesn’t. There is no match score or partial matching, and it doesn’t give you a ZIP Code or municipal centroid if it can’t find the address. It’s all or nothing; if you have partial or messy addresses or PO Boxes, it’s pretty much guaranteed that you won’t get matches.

There’s no limit on number of matches, but I’ve built in a number of pauses so I’m not hammering the server too hard – one second after each match, 5 seconds after every 1000 matches, a couple seconds before retrying after an error. Your mileage will vary, but the other day I did about 2500 matches in just under 2 hours. Their server can be balky at times – in some cases I’ve encountered only a couple problems for every 100 records, but on other occasions there were hang-ups on every other record. For diagnostic purposes the script prints every 100th record to the screen, as well as any problems it encountered (see pic below). If you launch a process and notice the server is hanging on every other record and repeatedly failing to get matches, it’s probably best to bail out and come back later. Recently, I’ve noticed fewer problems during off-peak times: evenings and weekends.

script_running

Wrap Up

The script and the documentation are posted on our labs resources page, for all to see and use – you just have to install the third party censusgeocode module before using it. When would you want to use this? Well, if you need something that’s free, this is a good choice. If you have batches in the 10ks to do, this would be a good solution. If you’re in the 100ks, it could be a feasible solution – one of my colleagues has confirmed that he’s used the script to match about 40k addresses, so the service is up to the task for doing larger jobs.

If you have less than a couple thousand records, you might as well use their website and upload files directly. If you’re pushing a million or more – well, you’ll probably want to set up something locally. PostGIS has a TIGER module that lets you do desktop matching if you need to go into the millions, or you simply have a lot to do on a consistent basis. The excellent book PostGIS in Action has a chapter dedicated to to this.

In some cases, large cities or counties may offer their own geocoding services, and if you know you’re just going to be doing matches for your local area those sources will probably have greater accuracy, if they’re adding value with local knowledge. For example, my results with NYC’s geocoding API for addresses in the five boroughs are better than the Census Bureau’s and is customized for local quirks; for example, I can pass in a borough name instead of a postal city and ZIP Code, and it’s able to handle those funky addresses in Queens that have dashes and similar names for multiple streets (35th st, 35th ave, 35th dr…). But for a free, public domain service that requires no registration, no keys, covers the entire country, and is the foundation for just about every US geocoding platform out there, the Census Geocoder is hard to beat.

Review of The Census Reporter

Picking up where I left off from my previous post (gee – welcome to 2016!) I thought I’d give a brief review of another census resource, The Census Reporter at http://censusreporter.org/.

The Census Reporter was created to make it easier for journalists to write stories using census data. To that end, they’ve created a really slick and easy to use web site that makes the data accessible and fun to explore. From the homepage you have three ways of diving into the data: you can pull up a profile by typing in the name of a place, you can enter an address and explore places that contain that address, or you can explore tables by topic.

Census Reporter Homepage

First, the place-based approach. You can type in a named place, like a state, county, or a census place (incorporated cities and towns, or census designated places) to get started. This will give you a selection of data from the most recent release of the American Community Survey. For larger areas where the data is available, it gives you 1-year ACS data by default; otherwise you get the latest 5-year data.

You’re presented with a map of the location at the top, and a series of attractive looking graphs and charts sorted by the demographic profile table source – social, economic, housing, and demographic. If you hover over a data point in a table it gives you some geographic context by comparing this place’s value with that of larger places where it’s contained. For example, if I search for Philadelphia I can hover over the chart to get the value for the Philly metro area and the State of Pennsylvania. I can click a link below each chart to open the full table, which includes both estimates and margins of error. There are small links for viewing the table by itself on a separate page (which also gives you the ability to download it) and for embedding the chart in a website.

Census Reporter Chart and Table

Viewing the table gives you additional options, like adding additional places for comparison, or subdividing the place into smaller areas for comparison. So if I’m looking at Philadelphia, I can break it down into tracts, block groups, or ZIP Codes. From there I can toggle away from the table view to view a map or a distribution bar to explore that variable by individual geographies.

Census Reporter Chart and Table

The place-based search is great at allowing you to drill down either by topic or by these smaller geographies. But if you wanted to access a fuller range of geographies like congressional districts or PUMAs, it seems easier to do an address-based search. Back on the homepage, selecting the address button and typing in an address brings you to a map with the address pin-pointed, and on the left you can choose any geography that encloses that address. Once you do that, you get a profile for that geography and can start doing the same sorts of operations for changing the topics or tables, or adding or subdividing geographies for comparison.

Address Search

The topic-based search lets you search just by topic and then figure out the geography piece later. Of the three types of searches this one is the toughest, given the sheer number of tables and cross-tabulations. You can click on a link for a general topic to narrow things down a bit before beginning a search.

In downloading the data you have a variety of useful options: CSV, Excel, GeoJSON, KML, and shapefiles. So in theory you can download data that’s readily mappable – in practice I wasn’t able to download a shapefile, but could grab a KML or GeoJson and was able to visualize it in QGIS. One challenge in downloading any of the files is that the column names use the identifier codes, and the actual names of the variables aren’t included in the download format you choose – they’re included in a json file. So you can use that for reference, but it can’t be readily incorporated into the table.

So – where would this resource fall within the pantheon of US Census data resources? I think it’s great for accessing and, especially, visualizing profiles (profile = lots of data for one place) from the most recent ACS releases. It’s easy to use and succeeds at making the data interesting; for that reason I certainly would incorporate it into undergraduate courses where I’m introducing data. The ability to embed the charts into websites is certainly a bonus, and they deserve a big thumbs up for incorporating the margin of error data, rather than hiding or discarding it like other resources do.

The ability to create and view comparison tables (comparison = one piece of data for many places) is good – select an area and then break it down – but not as strong as the profile options. If you want to get a profile for a non-named place like a tract, ZIP Code, or PUMA you can’t do that from the profile search. You can do an address search and back out (if you know an address for that you’re interested in) or you can drill down by topic, which lets you search by summary area in addition to named places.

For users who need to download a lot of data, or for folks who need datasets that aren’t the most recent ACS release, this resource isn’t the place to go. The focus here is on providing the data in an easy and compelling way, as is. In viewing the profiles, it’s not clear if you can choose 5-year data over 1-year data for places where both datasets are available – even for large geographic areas with high population, sometimes it’s preferable to use the 5-year data to take advantage of the smaller margins of error. I also didn’t see an option for choosing decennial census data.

In short, this resource is well-designed and definitely worth exploring. It seems clear why this would be a go-to source for journalists, but it can be for many others as well.

The New NYC Census Factfinder

As I’m updating my presentations and handouts for the new academic year, I’m taking two new census resources for a test drive. I’ll talk about the first resource in this post.

The NYC Department of City Planning has been collating census data and publishing it for the City for quite some time. They’ve created neighborhood tabulation areas (NTAs) by aggregating census tracts, so that they could publish more reliable ACS data for small areas (since the margins of error for census tracts can be quite large) and so that New Yorkers have data for neighborhood-like areas that they would recognize. The City also publishes PUMA-level data that’s associated with the City’s Community Districts, as well as borough and city-level data. All of this information is available in a large series of Excel spreadsheets or PDFs in the form of comparison tables for each dataset.

The Department of Planning also created the NYC Census Factfinder, a web-mapping interface that let’s users explore census tract and NTA level data profiles. You could plug in an address or click on the map and get a 2010 Census profile, or a demographic change profile that showed shifts between the 2000 and 2010 Census.

pic1_factfinder

It was a nice application, but they’ve just made a series of updates that make it infinitely better:

  1. They’ve added the American Community Survey data from 2009-2013, and you can view the four demographic profile tables (demographics, social, economic, and housing) for tracts and NTAs.
  2. Unlike many other sources, they do publish the margin of error for all of the ACS data, which is immensely important. Estimates that have a high margin of error (as defined by a coefficient of variation) appear in grey instead of solid black. While the actual margins are not shown by default, you can simply click the Show radio button to turn on the Reliability data.
  3. Tracts or neighborhoods can be compared to the City as a whole or to an individual borough by selecting the drop down for the column header.
  4. This is especially cool – if you’re viewing census tracts you can use the select pointer and hold down the Control key (Command key on a Mac) to select multiple tracts, and then the data tables will aggregate the tract-level data for you (so essentially you can build your own neighborhoods). What’s noteworthy here is that it also calculates the new margins of error for all of the derived estimates, AND it even calculates new medians and averages with margins of error! This is something that I’ve never seen in any other application.
  5. In addition to searching for locations by address, you can hit the search type drop down and you have a number of additional options like Intersection, Place of Interest, and even Subway Stations.

nyc_factfinder_table

There are a few quirks:

    1. I had trouble viewing the map in Firefox – this isn’t a consistent problem but something I noticed today when I went exploring. Hopefully something temporary that will be corrected. Had no problems in IE.
    2. If you want to click to select an area on the map, you have to hit the select button first (the arrow beside the zoom slider and print button) and then click on your area to select it. Just clicking on the map without hitting select first won’t do much – it will just highlight the area and tell you it’s name. Clicking the arrow button turns it blue and allows you to select features, clicking it again turns it white and lets you identify features and pan around the map.

factfinder_buttons

  1. The one bummer is that there isn’t a way to download any of the profiles – particularly the ones you custom design by selecting tracts. Hitting the Get Data button takes you out of the Factfinder and back to the page with all of the pre-compiled comparison tables. You can print the table out to a PDF for presentation purposes, but if you want a data-friendly format you’ll have to highlight and select the table on the page, copy, and paste into a spreadsheet.

These are just small quibbles that I’m sure will eventually be addressed. As is stands, with the addition of the ACS and the new features they’ve added, I’ll definitely be integrating the NYC Census Factfinder into my presentations and will be revising my NYC Neighborhood Census data handout to add it as a source. It’s unique among resources in that it provides NTA-level data in addition to tract data, has 2000 and 2010 historical change and the latest 5-year ACS (with margins of error) in one application, and allows you to build your own neighborhoods to aggregate tract data WITH new margins of error for all derived estimates. It’s well-suited for users who want basic Census demographic profiles for neighborhood-like areas in NYC.

Downloading Data for Small Census Geographies in Bulk

I needed to download block group level census data for a project I’m working on; there was one particular 2010 Census table that I needed for every block group in the US. I knew that the American Factfinder was out – you can only download block group data county by county (which would mean over 3,000 downloads if you want them all). I thought I’d share the alternatives I looked at; as I searched around the web I found many others who were looking for the same thing (i.e. data for the smallest census geographies covering a large area).

The Census FTP site at http://www2.census.gov/

This would be the first logical step, but in the end it wasn’t optimal based on my need. When you drill down through Census 2010, Summary File 1, you see a file for every state and a national file. Initially I thought – great! I’ll just grab the national file. But the national file does NOT contain the small census statistical areas – no tracts, block groups, or blocks. If you want those small areas you have to download the files for each of the states – 51 downloads. When you download the data you can also download an MS Access database, which is an empty shell with the geography and field headers, and you can import each of the text file data tables (there a lot of them for 2010 SF1) into the db and match them to the headers during import (the instructions that were included for doing this were pretty good). This is great if you need every variable in every table for every geography, but I was only interested in one table for one geography. I could just import the one text file with my table, but then I’d have to do this import process 51 times. The alternative is to use some Python to get that one text file for every state into one big file and then do the import once, but I opted for a different route.

The NHGIS at https://www.nhgis.org/

I always recommend this resource to anyone who’s looking for historical census data or boundary files, but it’s also good if you want current data for these small areas. I was able to use their query window to widdle down the selection by dataset (2010 SF1), geography (block groups), and topic (Hispanic origin and race in my case), then I was able to choose the table I needed. On the last screen before download I was able to check a box to include all 50 states plus DC and PR in one file. I had to wait a couple minutes for the request to process, then downloaded the file as a CSV and loaded it into my database. This was the best solution for my circumstances by far – one table for all block groups in the country. If you had to download a lot (or all) of the tables or variables for every block group or block it may take quite awhile, and plugging through all of those menus to select everything would be tedious – if that’s your situation it may be easier to grab everything using the Census FTP.

nhgis

UExplore / Dexter at http://mcdc.missouri.edu/applications/uexplore.shtml

The Missouri Census Data Center’s UExplore / Dexter tool lets you choose a dataset and takes you to a window that resembles a file system, with a ton of files in it. The MCDC takes their extracts directly from the Census, so they’re structured in a similar way to the FTP site as state-based files. They begin with the state prefix and have a name that indicates geography – there are files for block groups, blocks, and one for everything else. There are national files (which don’t contain small census areas) that begin with ‘us’. The difference here is – when you click on a file, it launches a query window that let’s you customize the extract. The interface may look daunting at first, but it’s worth exploring (and there’s a tutorial to help guide you). You can choose from several output formats, specific variables or tables (if you don’t want them all), and there are a bunch of handy options that you can specify like aggregation or percent totals. In addition to the complete datasets, they’ve also created ‘Standard Extracts’ that have the most common variables, if you want just a core subset. While the NHGIS was the best choice for my specific need, the customization abilities in Dexter may fit your needs – and the state-level block group and block data is conveniently broken out from the other files.

Lastly…

There are a few others tools – I’ll give an honorable mention to the Summary File Retrieval tool, which is an Excel plugin that lets you tap directly into the American Community Survey from a spreadsheet. So if you wanted tracts or block groups for a wide area for but a small number of variables (I think 20 is the limit) that could be a winner, provided you’re using Excel 2007 or later and are just looking at the ACS. No dice in my case, as I needed Decennial Census data and use OpenOffice at home.

Screen Scraping Data with Python

I had a request recently for population centers (aka population centroids) for all the counties in the US. The Census provides the 2010 centroids in state level files and in one national file for download, but the 2000 centroids were provided in HTML tables on individual web pages for each state. Rather than doing the tedious work of copying and pasting 51 web pages into a spreadsheet, I figured this was my chance to learn how to do some screen scraping with Python. I’m certainly no programmer, but based on what I’ve learned (I took a three day workshop a couple years ago) and by consulting books and crawling the web for answers when I get stuck, I’ve been able to write some decent scripts for processing data.

For screen scraping there’s a must-have module called Beautiful Soup which easily let’s you parse web pages, well or ill-formed. After reading the Beautiful Soup Quickstart and some nice advice I found on a post on Stack Overflow, I was able to build a script that looped through each of the state web pages, scraped the data from the tables, and dumped it into a delimited text file. Here’s the code:

## Frank Donnelly Feb 29, 2012
## Scrapes 2000 centers of population for counties from individual state web pages
## and saves in one national-level text file.

from urllib.request import urlopen
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

output_file=open('CenPop2000_Mean_CO.txt','a')
header=['STATEFP','COUNTYFP','COUNAME','STNAME','POPULATION','LATITUDE','LONGITUDE']
output_file.writelines(",".join(header)+"n")

url='http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/county/coucntr%s.html'

fips=['01','02','04','05','06','08','09','10',
'11','12','13','15','16','17','18','19','20',
'21','22','23','24','25','26','27','28','29','30',
'31','32','33','34','35','36','37','38','39','40',
'41','42','44','45','46','47','48','49','50',
'51','53','54','55','56']

for i in fips:
  soup = BeautifulSoup(urlopen(url %i).read())
  titleTag = soup.html.head.title
  list=titleTag.string.split()
  name=(list[4:])
  state=' '.join(name)  
 
  for row in soup('table')[1].tbody('tr'):
    tds = row('td')
    line=tds[0].string, tds[1].string, tds[2].string, state, 
    tds[3].string.replace(',',''), tds[4].string, tds[5].string

    output_file.writelines(",".join(line)+"n")     

output_file.close()

After installing the modules step 1 is to import them into the script. I initially got a little stuck here, because there are also some standard modules for working with urls (urllib and urlib2) that I’ve seen in books and other examples that weren’t working for me. I discovered that since I’m using Python 3.x and not the 2.x series, something had changed recently and I had to change how I was referencing urllib.

With that out of the way I created a a text file, a list with the column headings I want, and then wrote those column headings to my file.

Next I read in the url. Since the Census uses a static URL that varies for each state by FIPS code, I was able to assign the URL to a variable and inserted the % symbol to substitute where the FIPS code goes. I created a list of all the FIPS codes, and then I run through a loop – for every FIPS code in the list I pass that code into the url where the % place holder is, and process that page.

The first bit of info I need to grab is the name of the state, which doesn’t appear in the table. I grab the title tag from the page and save it as a list, and then grab everything from the fourth element (fifth word) to the end of the list to capture the state name, and then collapse those list elements back into one string (have to do this for states that have multiple words – New, North, South, etc.).

So we go from the HTML Title tag:

County Population Centroids for New York

To a list with elements 0 to 5:

list=[“County”, “Population”, “Centroids”, “for”, “New”, “York”]

To a shorter list with elements 4 to end:

name=[“New”,”York”]

To a string:

state=”New York”

But the primary goal here is to grab everything in the table. So we identify the table in the HTML that we want – the first table in those pages [0] is just an empty frame and the second one [1] is the one with the data. For every row (tr) in the table we can reference and grab each cell (td), and string those cells together as a line by referencing them in the list. As I string these together I also insert the state name so that it appears on every line, and for the third list element (total population in 2000) I strip out any commas (numbers in the HTML table included commas, a major no-no that leads to headaches in a csv file). After we grab that line we dump it into the output file, with each value separated by a comma and each record on it’s own line (using the new line character). Once we’ve looped through each table on each page for each state, we close the file.

There are a few variations I could have tried; I could have read the FIPS codes in from a table rather than inserting them into the script, but I preferred to keep everything together. I could have read the state names in as a list, or coupled them with the codes in a dictionary. This would have been less risky then relying on the state name in the title tag, but since the pages were well-formed and I wanted to experiment a little I went the title tag route. Instead of typing the codes in by hand I used Excel trickery to concatenate commas to the end of each code, and then concatenated all the values together in one cell so I could copy and paste the list into the script.

You can go here to see an individual state page and source, and here to see what the final output looks like. Or if you’re just looking for a national level file of 2000 population centroids for counties that you can download, look no further!

ACS Trend Reports and Census Geography Guide

I recently received my first question from someone who wanted to compare 2005-2007 ACS data with 2008-2010. With the release of the latter, we can make historical comparisons with the three year data for the first time since we have estimates that don’t overlap. We should be able to make some interesting comparisons, since the first set covers the real estate boom years (remember those?) and the second covers the Great Recession. One resource that makes such comparisons relatively painless is over at the Missouri Census Data Center. They’ve put together a really clean and simple interface called the ACS Trends Menu, which allows you to select either two one period estimates or two three period estimates and compare them for several different census geographies – states, counties, MCDs, places, metros, Congressional Districts, PUMAs, and a few others – for the entire US (not just Missouri). The end result is a profile that groups data into the Economic, Demographic, Social, and Housing categories that the Census uses for its Demographic Profile tables. The calculations for change and percent change for the estimates and margins of error are done for you.

Downloading the data is not as straightforward – the links to extract it just brought me some error messages, so it’s still a work in progress. Until then, a simple copy and paste into your spreadsheet of choice will work fine.

ACS Trends Menu

If you like the interface, they’ve created separate ones for downloading profiles from any of the ACS periods or from the 2010 Census. The difference here is that you’re looking at one time frame; not across time periods. The interface and the output are the same, but in these menus you can compare four different geographies at once in one profile. Unlike the Trends reports, both the ACS and 2010 Census profiles have easy, clear cut ways to download the profiles as a PDF or a spreadsheet. If you’re happy with data in a profile format and want an interface that’s a little less confusing to navigate than the American Factfinder, these are all great alternatives (and if you’re building web applications these profiles are MUCH easier to work with – you can easily build permanent links or generate them on the fly).

The US Census Bureau also recently put together a great resource called the Guide to State and Local Census Geography. They provide a census geography overview of each state: 2010 population, land area, bordering states, year of entry into the union, population centroids, and a description of how local government is organized in the state – (i.e. do they have municipal civil divisions or only incorporated cities and unincorporated land, etc). You get counts for every type of geography – how many counties, tracts, ZCTAs, and so on, AND best of all you can download all of this data directly in tab delimited files. Need a list of every county subdivision in a state, with codes, land area, and coordinates? No problem – it’s all there.