When I’m making global thematic maps, I usually turn to Natural Earth. They provide country polygons and boundary lines, as well as features like cities and rivers, at several different scales. I always reference it in workshops that I teach, including the 2-week GIS Institute that I participated in earlier this month. It’s a solid, free data source and a good example for illustrating how scale and generalization work in cartography. It’s a “natural choice”, as they provide boundaries that depict the way the world actually looks.
I also discussed aesthetics and map design during the Institute. What if you don’t necessarily care about representing the boundaries exactly the way they are? If you rely on the map reader’s knowledge of the relative shape of the countries and their position on the globe, and you employ good labeling, you can choose boundaries that are more artistic and fun (provided that your only goal is making a basic thematic map and it’s not being published in a stodgy journal).
Project Linework is part of Something About Maps, an excellent blog by Daniel Huffman. The project consists of different series of public domain boundary files that have been generalized to provide interesting and visually attractive alternatives to standard features. The gallery contains a sample image and brief description of each series, including details on geographic coverage. Most of the series cover just North America or select portions of the world.
The three I’ll mention below are global in coverage. They come in shapefile and geojson formats, are projected in World Gall Stereographic (ESRI 54016), and include line and polygon coverages. The attribute tables have fields for ISO country codes, which are standard unique identifiers that allow for table joins for thematic mapping. I took my map of Wheat and Meslin Exports from Ukraine from an earlier post to create the following examples.
With the Wargames series, the world has been rendered using the little hexagon grids familiar to many war board gamers, and plenty of non-war gamers for that matter (think Settlers of Catan). Hexes are a an alternative to grids for determining adjacency.
Moriarty Hand is a more whimsical interpretation. It was drawn by hand by tracing line work from Natural Earth. The end result is more organic compared to Wargames. It comes in two scales, small and large (with an example of the latter below):
My personal favorite is 1981. It’s inspired by the basic polygon shapes that you would have seen in early computer graphics. When I was little I remember loading a DOS-based atlas program from a floppy disk, and slowly panning across a CGA monochrome screen as the machine chunked away to render countries that looked like these. Good if you’re looking for a retro vibe.
I’ve also received a number of questions this semester about animal observation and tracking data. Since I usually study people and not animals, I was a bit out of my element and had some homework to do. If you’ve ever watched nature shows, you’ve seen scientists tagging animals with collars or bands to track them by radio or satellite, or setting up cameras to record them. Many scientists upload their GPS coordinate data into publicly accessible repositories for others to download and use.
I’ve written a short, three-part document that I’ve posted on our tutorials page: GIS Data Sources for Wildlife Tutorial. In the first part, I provide summaries, links, and guidance on using large portals like Movebank and Zoatrack that include many species from all over the world (wild and domestic), as well a government repositories including NOAA’s National Center for Environment Information Geoportal and the National Park Service’s Data Store. The second part focuses on search strategies, crawling the web and combing through academic literature in library databases to find additional data. Since these datasets are highly diffuse, it’s worth going beyond the portals to see what else you can discover.
I describe how you can add and visualize this data in QGIS and ArcGIS Pro in the third and final part. Wildlife data comes packaged in a number of formats; in some cases you’ll find shapefiles or geodatabases that you can readily add and visualize, but more often than not the data is packaged in a plain CSV / TXT format. This requires you to plot the coordinates (X for longitude, Y for latitude) to create a dot map of the observations. Data files will often contain a number of individual animals, which can be uniquely identified with a tag ID, allowing you to symbolize the points by category so you have a different color or symbol for each individual. Alternatively, there might be separate data files for each individual, that you could add and symbolize differently. The files will contain either a sequential integer or a timestamp that indicates the order of the observations. With one field that indicates the order and another that identifies each individual, you can use a Points to Line or Points to Path tool to generate lines (tracks or trajectories) from the points (observations or detections).
You can see where dingos in Queensland, Australia are going in the screenshot below, which displays individual observation points, and the screenshot in the header of this post where the points were connected to form paths. I obtained the data from ZoaTrack and used QGIS for mapping. Check out the tutorial for details on how to find and map your favorite animals.
I’ve been receiving more questions about geospatial data sources as the semester draws to a close. I’ll describe some sources that I haven’t used extensively before in the next couple of posts, beginning with data on bilateral trade: imports and exports between countries. We’ll look at the IMF’s Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) and the UN’s COMTRADE database. Both sources provide web-based portals, APIs, and bulk downloading. I’ll focus on the portals.
IMF Direction of Trade Statistics
IMF DOTS provides monthly, quarterly, and annual import and export data, represented as total dollar values for all goods exchanged. The annual data goes back to 1947, while the monthly / quarterly data goes back to 1960. All countries that are part of the IMF are included, plus a few others. Data for exports are published on a Free and On Board (FOB) price basis, while imports are published on a Cost, Insurance, Freight (CIF) price basis. Here are definitions for each term, quoted directly from the OECD’s Statistical Glossary:
The f.o.b. price (free on board price) of exports and imports of goods is the market value of the goods at the point of uniform valuation, (the customs frontier of the economy from which they are exported). It is equal to the c.i.f. price less the costs of transportation and insurance charges, between the customs frontier of the exporting (importing) country and that of the importing (exporting) country.
The c.i.f. price (i.e. cost, insurance and freight price) is the price of a good delivered at the frontier of the importing country, including any insurance and freight charges incurred to that point, or the price of a service delivered to a resident, before the payment of any import duties or other taxes on imports or trade and transport margins within the country.
There are a few different ways to browse and search for data. Start with the Data Tables tab at the top, and Exports and Imports by Areas and Countries. The default table displays monthly exports by region and country for the entire world (you could switch to imports by selecting the Imports CIF tab beside the Export sFOB tab). Hitting the Calendar dropdown allows you to change the date range and frequency. Hitting the Country dropdown lets you select a specific region or country. In the example below, I’ve changed the calendar from months to years, and the country to Ukraine. By doing so, the table now depicts the total US dollar value of exports and imports between Ukraine and all other countries. The Export button at the top allows you to save the report in a number of formats, Excel being the most data friendly option.
While this is the quickest option, it comes with some downsides; the biggest one is that there are no unique identifiers for the countries, which is important if you wanted to join this table to a GIS vector file for mapping, or another country-level table in a database.
A better approach is to return to the home page and use the Query tab, which allows you to get a unique identifier and filter out countries and regions that are not of interest.
Under Columns, select the time frame and interval. For example, check Years for Frequency at the top, and change the dropdowns at the bottom from Months to Years. From -5 to 0 would give you the last five years in ascending order.
Rows allows you to filter out countries or regions that you don’t want to see in the results. You can also change the attribute that is displayed. Once the menu is open, right click in an empty area and choose Attribute. Here you can choose a variant country name, or an ISO country code. ISO codes are commonly used for uniquely identifying countries.
Indicator lets you choose Exports (FOB), Imports (CIF or FOB), or Trade Balance, all in US dollars.
Counterpart country is the country or region that you want to show trade for, such as Ukraine in our previous example.
The tabs along the top allow you to produce graphs instead of a table (View – Table), to pivot the table (Adjust), and calculate summaries like sums or averages (Advanced).
Export to produce an Excel file. By choosing the ISO codes you’ll lose the country names, but you can join the result to another country data table or shapefile and grab the names from there.
If you want data on the exchange of specific goods and services, quantities in addition to dollar values, and exchanges beyond simple imports and exports, then the UN’s COMTRADE database will be your source. You need to register to download data, but you can generate previews without having to log in. There is an extensive wiki that describes how to use the different database tools, and summaries of technical terms that you need to know for extracting and interpreting the data. You’ll need some understanding of the different systems for classifying commodities and goods. Your options (the links that follow lead to documentation and code lists) are: the Harmonized Classification System (HC), the Standard Industrial Trade Classification (SITC), and the Broad Economic Categories (BEC). What’s the difference? Here are some summaries, quoted directly from a UN report on the BEC:
The HS classification is maintained by the World Customs Organization. Its main purpose is to classify goods crossing the border for import tariffs or for application of some non-tariff measures for safety or health reasons. The HS classification is revised on a five-year cycle (p. 18)
The original SITC was designed in the 1950s as a tool for collection and dissemination of international merchandise trade statistics that would help in establishing internationally comparable trade statistics. By its introduction in 1988, the HS took over as collection and dissemination tool, and SITC was thereon used mostly as an analytical tool. (p. 19)
The Classification by Broad Economic Categories (BEC) is an international product classification. Its main purpose is to provide a set of broad product categories for the analysis of trade statistics. Since its adoption in 1971, statistical offices around the world have used BEC to report trade statistics in a concise and meaningful way (p. iii). The broad economic categories of BEC include all subheadings of the HS classification. Therefore, the total trade in terms of HS equals the total trade of the goods side of BEC. (p. 18)
In short, go with the BEC if you’re interested in high-level groupings, or the HS if you need detailed subdivisions. The SITC would be useful if you need to go further back in time, or if it facilitates looking at certain subdivisions or groupings that the other systems don’t capture.
From COMTRADE’s homepage, I suggest leaving the defaults in place and doing a basic, preliminary search for all global exports for the most recent year, so you can see basic output on the next screen. Then you can apply filters for a narrower search.
For example, let’s look at annual exports of wheat from Ukraine to other countries. Under the HS filter, remove the TOTAL code. Start typing wheat, and you’ll see various product categories: 6-digit codes are the most specific, while 4-digit codes are broader groups that encapsulate the 6-digit categories. We’ll choose wheat and meslin 1001. We’ll select Ukraine as the Reporter (the country that supplied the statistics and represents the origin point), and for the 1st partner we’ll choose All to get a list of all countries that Ukraine exported wheat to. The 2nd partner country we’ll leave as World (alternatively, you would add specific countries here if you wanted to know if there were intermediary nations between the origin and destination).
Hit Preview to see the results. You can click on a heading to sort by dollar value, weight, or country name. Like IMF DOTS, UN COMTRADE measures dollar amounts of exports as FOB and imports as CIF. At this point, you would need to log in to download the data as a CSV (creating an account is free). You would also need to be logged in if you generated an extract that has more than 500 records, otherwise the results will be truncated. You could always copy and paste data for shorter extracts directly from the screen to a spreadsheet, but you wouldn’t get any of the extra metadata fields that come with download, like ISO Country Codes and the classification codes for goods and merchandise.
For data from either source, if you wanted to map it you’d need to have a data table where there is one row for each country with columns of attributes, and with one column that has the ISO country code to serve as a unique identifier. Save the data table in an Excel file or as a table in a database. Download a country shapefile from Natural Earth. Add the shapefile and data table to a project and join them using the ISO code. Natural Earth shapefiles have several different ISO code columns that represent nations, sovereigns, and parent – child relationships; be sure you select the right one. Data table records that represent regions or groupings of countries (i.e. the EU, ASEAN, sum of smaller countries per continent not enumerated, etc.) will fall out of the dataset, as they won’t have a matching feature in the country shapefile. The map at the top of this post was created in QGIS, using COMTRADE and Natural Earth.
In spatial analysis, kernel density estimation (colloquially referred to as a type of “hot spot analysis”) is used to explore the intensity or clustering of point-based events. Crimes, parking tickets, traffic accidents, bird sightings, forest fires, incidents of infections disease, anything that you can plot as a point at a specific period in time can be studied using KDE. Instead of looking at these features as a distribution of discrete points, you generate a raster that represents a continuous surface of values. You can either measure the density of the incidents themselves, or the concentration of a specific attribute that is tied to those incidents (like the dollar amount of parking tickets or the number of injuries in traffic accidents).
In this post I’ll demonstrate how to do a KDE analysis in QGIS, but you can easily implement KDE in other software like ArcGIS Pro or R. Understanding the inputs you have to provide to produce a meaningful result is more important than the specific tool. This YouTube video produced by the SEER Lab at the University of Florida helped me understand what these inputs are. They used the SAGA kernel tool within QGIS, but I’ll discuss the regular QGIS tool and will cover some basic data preparation steps when working with coordinate data. The video illustrates a KDE based on a weight, where there were single points that had a count-based attribute they wanted to interpolate (number of flies in a trap). In this post I’ll cover simple density based on the number of incidents (individual noise complaints), and will conclude by demonstrating how to generate contour lines from the KDE raster.
For a summary of how KDE works, take a look at the entry for “Kernel” in the Encyclopedia of Geographic Information Science (2007) p 247-248. For a fuller treatment, I always recommend Christopher Lloyd’s Spatial Data Analysis: An Introduction to GIS Users (2010) p 93-97 by Oxford Press. There’s also an explanation in the ArcGIS Pro documentation.
I visited the NYC Open Data page and pulled up the entry for 311 Service Requests. When previewing the data I used the filter option to narrow the records down to a small subset; I chose complaints that were created between June 1st and 30th 2022, where the complaint type began with “Noise”, which gave me about 75,000 records (it’s a noisy town). Then I hit the Export button and chose one of the CSV formats. CSV is a common export option from open data portals; as long as you have columns that contain latitude and longitude coordinates, you will be able to plot the records. The NYC portal allows you to filter up front; other data portals like the ones in Philly and DC package data into sets of CSV files for each year, so if you wanted to apply filters you’d use the GIS or stats package to do that post-download. If shapefiles or geoJSON are provided, that will save you the step of having to plot coordinates from a CSV.
With the CSV, I launched QGIS, went to the Data Source Manager, and selected Delimited Text. Browsed for the file I downloaded, gave the layer a common sense name, and under geometry specified Point coordinates, and confirmed that the X field was my longitude column and the Y field was latitude. Ran the tool, and the points were plotted in the basic WGS 84 longitude / latitude system in degrees, which is the system the coordinates in the data file were in (generally a safe bet for modern coordinate data, but not always the case).
The next step was to save these plotted points in a file format that stores geometry and allows us to do spatial analysis. In doing that step, I recommend taking two additional ones. First, verify that all of the plotted data have coordinates – if there are any records where lat and long are missing, those records will be carried along into the spatial file but there will be no geometry for them, which will cause problems. I used the Select Features by Expression tool, and in the expression window typed “Latitude” is not null to select all the features that have coordinates.
Second, transform the coordinate reference system (CRS) of the layer to a projected system that uses meters or feet. When we run the kernel tool, it will ask us to specify a radius for defining the density, as well as the size of the pixels for the output raster. Using degrees doesn’t make sense, as it’s hard for us to conceptualize distances in degrees, and they are not a constant unit of measurement. If you’ve googled around and read Stack Exchange posts or watched videos where a person says “You just have to experiment and adjust these numbers until your map looks Ok”, they were working with units in fractions of degrees. This is not smart. Transform the system of your layers!
I selected the layer, right clicked, Export, Save Selected Features As. The default output is a geopackage, which is fine. Otherwise you could select ESRI shapefile, both are vector formats that store geometry. For file name I browse … and save the file in a specific folder. Beside CRS I hit the globe button, and in the CRS Selector window typed NAD83 Long Island in the filter at the top, and at the bottom I selected the NAD83 / New York Long Island (ftUS) EPSG 2263 option system in the list. Every state in the US has one or more state plane zones that you can select for making optimal maps for that area, in feet or meters. Throughout the world, you could choose an appropriate UTM zone that covers your area in meters. For countries or continents, look for an equidistant projection (meters again).
Clicked a series of Oks to create the new file. To reset my map window to match CRS of the new file, I selected that file, right clicked, Layer CRS, Set Project CRS from Layer. Removed my original CSV to avoid confusion, and saved my project.
Kernel Density Estimation
Now our data is ready. Under the Processing menu I opened the toolbox and searched for kernel to find Heatmap (Kernel Density Estimation) under the Interpolation tools. The tool asks for an input point layer, and then a radius. The radius is used to define an area for calculating a local density estimate around each point. We can use a formula to determine an ideal radius; the hopt method seems to be commonly employed for this purpose.
To use the hopt formula, we need to know the standard distance for our layer, which measures the degree to which features are dispersed around the spatial mean or center of the distribution. A nice 3rd party plugin was created for calculating this. I went to the the plugins menu, searched for the Standard Distance plugin, and added it. Searched for it in the Processing toolbox and launched it. I provided my point layer for input, and specified an output file. The other fields are optional (if we were measuring an attribute of the points instead of the density of the points, we could specify the attribute as a weight column). The output layer consists of a circle where the center is the mean center of the distribution, and the circle represents the standard deviation. The attribute table contains one record, with the standard distance attribute of 36,046.18 feet (if no feature was created, the likely problem is you have records in the point file that don’t have geometry – delete them and try again).
Knowing this, I used the hopt formula:
Where N is the number of features and SD is the standard distance. I used Excel to plug in these values and do the calculation.
((2/(374526))^0.25)36046.18 = 1971.33
Finally, I launched the heatmap kernel tool, specified my noise points as input, and the radius as 1,971 feet. The output raster size does take some experimentation. The larger the pixel size, the coarser or more general the resolution will be. You want to choose something that makes sense based on the size of the area, the number of points, and / or some other contextual information. Just like the radius, the units are based on the map units of your layer. If I type in 100 feet for Pixel X, I see I’ll have a raster with 1,545 rows and 1,565 columns. Change it to 200 feet, and I get 773 by 783. I’ll go with 200 feet (the distance between a “standard” numbered street block in midtown Manhattan). I kept the defaults for the other options.
The resulting raster was initially displayed in black and white. I opened the properties and symbology menu and changed the render type from Singleband gray to Singleband pseudocolor, and kept the default yellow to red scheme. Voila!
In June 2022 there were high clusters of noise complaints in north central Brooklyn, northern Manhattan, and the southwest portion of the Bronx. There’s a giant red hot spot in the north central Bronx that looks like the storm on planet Jupiter. What on earth is going on there? I flipped back to the noise point layer and selected points in that area, and discovered a single address where over 2,700 noise complaints about a loud party were filed on June 18 and 19! There’s also an address on the adjacent block that registered over 900 complaints. And yet the records do not appear to be duplicates, as they have different time stamps and closing dates. A mistake in coding this address, multiple times? A vengeful person spamming the 311 system? Or just one helluva loud party? It’s hard to say, but beware of garbage in, garbage out. Beyond this demo, I would spend more time investigating, would try omitting these complaints as outliers and run the heatmap tool again, and compare this output to different months. It’s also worth experimenting with the color classification scheme, and some different pixel sizes.
Another interesting way to visualize this data would be to generate contour lines based on the kernel output. I did a search for contour in the processing toolbox, and in the contour tool I provided the kernel noise raster as the input. For intervals between contour lines I tried 20 feet, and changed the attribute name to reflect what the contour represents: COMPLAINT instead of ELEV. Generated the new file, overlaid on top of the kernel, and now you can see how it represents the “elevation” of complaints.
Switch the kernel off, symbolize the contours and add some labels, and throw the OpenStreetMap underneath, and now you can explore New York’s hills and valleys of noise. Or more precisely, the hills and valleys of noise complainers! In looking at these contours, it’s important to remember that they’re generated from the kernel raster’s grid cells and not from the original point layer. The raster is a generalization of the point layer, so it’s possible that if you look within the center of some of the denser circles you may not find, say, 340 or 420 actual point complaints. To generate a more precise set of contours, you would need to decrease the pixel size in the kernel tool (from say 200 feet to 100).
It’s interesting what you can create with just one set of points as input. Happy mapping!
We recently launched our fledgling geodata portal on GitHub for the open datasets we’ll create in our new lab. In the spring we carved out a space on the 11th floor of the Sciences Library at Brown which we’ve christened GeoData@SciLi, a GIS and data consultation and work space. We’ll be doing renovations on both the webspace and workspace over the summer.
Our inaugural dataset was created by Ethan McIntosh, a senior (now graduate) who began working with me this spring. The dataset is the United Nations International Civil Service Commission’s (UN ICSC) Retail Price Indices with Details (RPID). The index measures the cost of living based on several categories of goods and services in duty stations around the world. It’s used to adjust the salaries of the UN’s international staff relative to UN headquarters in New York City (index value of 100 = cost of living in New York). The data is updated six times a year, published in an Excel spreadsheet that contains a macro that allows you to look up the value of each duty station via a dropdown menu. The UN ICSC makes the data public by request; you register and are granted access to download the data in PDF and Excel format in files that are packaged in one month / year at a time.
We were working with a PhD student in economics who wanted to construct a time-series of this data. Ethan wrote a Python script to aggregate all of the files from 2004 to present into a single CSV; the actual values for each country / duty station were stored in hidden cells that the macro pulled from, and he was able to pull them from these cells. He parsed the data into logical divisions, and added the standard 3-letter ISO 3166 country code to each duty station so that each record now has a unique place identifier. His script generates three outputs: a basic CSV of the data in separate month / year files, a “long” (aka flat) time series file where each record represents a specific duty station and retail index category or weight for a given month and year, and a “wide” time series file where the category / weight has been pivoted to a column, so each record represents all values for a duty station for a given month / year. He’s written the program to process and incorporate additional files as they’re published.
While the primary intention was to study this data as a time series in a statistical analysis, it can also be used for geospatial analysis and mapping. Using the wide file, I created the map in the header of this post, which depicts the total retail index for February 2022 for each country, where the value represents the duty station within the country (usually the capital city). I grabbed some boundaries from Natural Earth and joined the data to it using the ISO code. I classified the data using natural breaks, but manually adjusted the top level category to include all countries with a value greater than or equal to the base value of 100.
There were only five duty stations that were more expensive than New York, with values between 102 and 124: Tokyo, Ashkhabad (Turkmenistan), Singapore, Beirut, and Hong Kong. Beijing and Geneva were equivalent in price at 100. The least expensive stations with values between 52 and 69 were: Caracas (Venezuela), Tripoli, Damascus, Ankara (Turkey), Bucharest (Romania), Mbabane (Eswatini – formerly Swaziland), and Sofia (Bulgaria). There appears to be regional clustering of like values, although I didn’t run any tests. The station in the US that’s measured relative to NYC is Washington DC (index value of 89).
The final datasets and code used to generate them are available on GitHub, and we’ll update it at least once, if not a couple times, a year. We are not providing the original month / year macro spreadsheets; if you want those you should register with the UN ICSC and access them there. If you’re using our data files, you should still register with them, as they would like to be aware of how their data is being used.
We will post additional projects, datasets, and code in individual repos as we create them, linked to from our main page. I’m working on creating a basic metadata profile for our lab, so we’ll provide structured metadata for each of our datasets in the near future.
Over the course of this academic year I’ve helped many students find GIS data related to coastal storms and flooding in the US. There’s a ton of data available, particularly from NOAA, but there are so many projects and initiatives that it can be tough to find what you’re looking for. So I’ll share a few key resources here.
NOAA’s DigitalCoast is a good place to start; it’s a catalog of federal, state, and US territory projects and websites that provide both spatial and non-spatial datasets related to coastal storms and flooding. You can filter by place and data type; there are even a few global sources. Most of the projects I mention below are cataloged there.
Given the size of many of these datasets, the ArcGIS File Geodatabase is often used for packaging and distribution. Once you’ve downloaded and unzipped one, it looks like a folder with lots of subfolders and files. If you’re an ArcGIS user, use the Catalog pane to browse your file system and add a connection to the database / folder to access its contents. If you’re a QGIS user, use the Data Manager and on the Vector tab change the source type from File to Directory. In the Source Type dropdown you can choose OpenFileGDB, and browse and select the database, which appears as a folder. Once you hit the Add button, you’ll be prompted to choose the features in the DB that you wish to add to the project.
FEMA Flood Hazards and Disasters
The FEMA flood maps are usually the first thing that comes to mind when folks set out to find data on flooding, but good luck finding their GIS data. I’ve searched through their main program site for the National Flood Hazard Layer and followed every link, but can’t for the life of me find the connection to the page that has actual GIS data; there are map viewer tools, scanned paper maps, web mapping services, and everything else under the sun.
If you want FEMA flood data in a GIS format: GO HERE! This is the record in data.gov for the National Flood Hazard Layer. The links at the bottom include this one: Download Seamless Nationwide NFHL GIS data. The data is packaged in an ArcGIS File Geodatabase, with one polygon feature class for flood zones. They’re categorized into 100 and 500 year zones, open water bodies, areas outside of flood zones, and areas outside flood zones protected by levees. The pic below illustrates 100 and 500 year zones overlaid on the OpenTopoMap.
FEMA also has a GIS data feed for current and historical emergencies and disasters, that are available in a variety of formats both spatial and non-spatial. These are county-level layers that indicate where disaster areas were declared and what kind of funding or assistance is / was available.
NOAA Sea Level Rise
The FEMA maps assess both past events and current conditions to model the likelihood of flooding in a 100 or 500 year period for a major storm event. A different way of looking at flooding is to consider sea level rise due to climate change, where the impact of sea level rise is measured in different increments. Instead of the impact of a one-shot event, this illustrates potential long term change. NOAA’s Sea Level Rise (SLR) viewer allows you to easily visualize the impact of sea level rise in 1 foot increments, between 1 and 10 feet. You can download the data by US state or territory for coastal areas. There are separate downloads for sea level rise, rise depth, the confidence intervals for the models, as well as DEMs and flood frequency. The sea level rise data is package in an ArcGIS file geodatabase, with two sets of files (a low estimate and high estimate) in one foot increments. An example of 6 feet in sea level rise is shown below.
NOAA National Hurricane Center
Beyond showing the general impact of flooding or sea level rise, you can also look at the track of individual hurricanes and tropical storms. The National Hurricane Center’s GIS data page provides historical forecasts – the projected path and cone of storms, windspeeds, storm surges, etc. You choose your year, then can choose a storm, and then a particular day. You can use this data to see how the forecasts evolved as the storm moved. When we’re in hurricane season, you can also see what the circumstances are day by day for tracking new storms.
If you want to see what actually happened (as opposed to a forecast), you can dig through the data page and browse the different options. There’s the Tropical Cyclone Report (TCR) which provides “information on each tropical cyclone, including synoptic history, meteorological statistics, casualties and damages, and the post-analysis best track (six-hourly positions and intensities). Tropical cyclones include depressions, storms and hurricanes.” The default page shows you the Atlantic, but you can swap to Eastern or Central Pacific using the link at the top. Storms are listed alphabetically (and thus by date) and your format options are shapefile or KML. There’s a map at the bottom that depicts and labels all the storms for that season. You actually get four shapefiles in a download; a point file that contains a number of measurements, a line file for the storm track, a polygon file for the radius of the storm, and another polygon with the wind swath. The layers for 2021’s Tropical Storm Henri are illustrated below.
GIS data for the storms begins in 2010 with KMZ files (which you’ll need to convert in ArcGIS or QGIS to make them useful beyond display purposes), and shapefiles appear in 2015. Further back in time are just PDF reports and map scans.
If you really want to go back and time and get all the tracks at once, there’s the HURDAT2 database; one for the Atlantic (1851 to present) and another for the Pacific (1949 to present). It’s a csv file that contains coordinates for the track of every storm, which you can process to create a geospatial file using a points to line tool. Or – you can grab a version where that’s already been created! The International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) keeps a running CSV and shapefile of all global storms. Scroll down and choose shapefile (CSV is another option). The download page is just a list of files – you can choose points or lines, storms by ocean (East Pacific, North Atlantic, North Indian, South Atlantic, South Indian, South Pacific, West Pacific), or grab everything in lists that are: active, everything (ALL), last 3 years, or since 1980. Below is an example of all storms in the North Atlantic – there are quite a lot (see below)! You get storm speed and direction, wind speed and direction, coordinates, and identifiers associated with the storm as points and lines. A subset of this data for the 2021 season is displayed in the feature image at the top of this post.
How About the Weather?
There are many places you can go for this and the best source depends on the use case. More often than not, I end up using the Local Climatological Database. Choose a geographic type, then a specific area, and you’ll see all the weather stations in this area. Add them to the cart, and then view the cart once you have all the stations you want. On the next screen choose an output format (CSV or TXT fixed width) and a date range. You submit an order and wait a bit for it to be compiled, and are notified by email when it’s ready for download. Mixed in this CSV are records that are monthly, daily, and hourly, so after downloading you’ll want to extract just the period you’re interested in. Data includes temperature, precipitation, dew point, wind speed and direction, humidity, barometric pressure, and cloud cover.
Some processing is required to make these files GIS ready. Each record represents an observation at a station at a given point in time, so if you plot these “as is” the likely idea is you’re making an illustrated time series of some sort, as you’ll have tons of observations plotted on a few spots (where the stations are). If this isn’t desirable, then you’ll filter records to create extracts for just a given point in time, maybe separate features for each time period. For monthly summaries you can pivot time to columns, to create a column for each month and indicator. This would be impractical for daily or hourly summaries, unless you’re focusing on a single month for the former or day / week for the latter (otherwise you’ll have a bazillion columns).
Annoyingly, the CSV option doesn’t include any of the station information in the download (like the standard WBAN ID, name, longitude, latitude, and elevation) except for one unique identifier. I know that this information was all included in the past, and am not sure why it was dropped. The TXT version includes the station info, but fixed-width files are a pain to work with. If you are working with a small number of stations, you can pull the station info individually by previewing the station on the download screen (click on the station title or little eye symbol). The five digit WBAN number is included as the last 5 digits of the identifier in the CSV, so you can identify and relate each one. If you don’t want to mess with copying and pasting, you can generate a second extract for all the stations for just a single day and download that in the TXT format, and then parse just the station columns and associate them with your main table.
There are multiple ways that you can create extracts for this data beyond the example I just provided, available from the main data tools page. For a more refined search you can select the summary period (yearly, monthly, daily, hourly) and targeted variables in advance. There are also FTP options for bulk downloads.
One thing that surprises folks who are new to working with this data, is that there aren’t many weather stations. For the LCD, my home state of Delaware only has three, one in each county. The entire City of New York only has three as well, at each of the airports and one in Central Park. If you’re not interested in points and want areas, then you would need to gather a significant number of stations and do interpolation. Or – use data that’s already modeled. I mentioned PRISM at Oregon State in a previous post, as a nice source for national US rasters of temperature and precipitation that you can generate for dailies, monthlies, and normals.