# Introduction to Stata Tutorial

This month’s post will be brief, but helpful for anyone who wants to learn Stata. I wrote a short tutorial called First Steps with Stata for an introductory social science data course I visited earlier this month. It’s intended for folks who have never used a statistical package or a command-driven interface, and represents initial steps prior to doing any statistical analysis:

1. Loading and viewing Stata dta files
2. Describing and summarizing data
3. Modifying and recoding data
4. Batch processing with Do files / scripts
5. Importing data from other formats

I chose the data that I used in my examples to illustrate the difference between census microdata and summary data, using sample data from the Current Population Survey to illustrate the former, and a table from the American Community Survey to represent the latter.

I’m not a statistician by training; I know the basics but rely on Python, databases, Excel, or GIS packages instead of stats packages. I learned a bit of Stata on my own in order to maintain some datasets I’m responsible for hosting, but to prepare more comprehensively to write this tutorial I relied on Using Stata for Quantitative Analysis, which I highly recommend. There’s also an excellent collection of Stata learning modules created by UCLA’s Advance Research Computing Center. Stata’s official user documentation is second to none for clearly introducing and explaining the individual commands and syntax.

In my years working in higher ed, the social science and public policy faculty I’ve met have all sworn by Stata over the alternatives. A study of citations in the health sciences, where stats packages used for the research were referenced in the texts, illustrates that SPSS is employed most often, but that Stata and R have increased in importance / usage over the last twenty years, while SAS has declined. I’ve had some students tell me that Stata commands remind them of R. In searching through the numerous shallow reviews and comparisons on the web, I found this post from a data science company that compares R, Python, SPSS, SAS, and Stata to be comprehensive and even-handed in summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of each. In short, I thought Stata was fairly intuitive, and the ability to batch script commands in Do files and to capture all input / output in logs makes it particularity appealing for creating reproducible research. It’s also more affordable than the other proprietary stats packages and runs on all operating systems.

Example – print the first five records of the active dataset to the screen for specific variables:

``list statefip age sex race cinethp in f/5``
```     +-------------------------------------------+
| statefip   age      sex    race   cinethp |
|-------------------------------------------|
1. |  alabama    76   female   white       yes |
2. |  alabama    68   female   black       yes |
3. |  alabama    24     male   black        no |
4. |  alabama    56   female   black        no |
5. |  alabama    80   female   white       yes |
|-------------------------------------------|```

# Creating STATA Variable Lists in Excel and Do Files With Python

In this post I demonstrate how export a list of variables from a STATA dta file to an Excel spreadsheet, and how to create a STATA do file by using Python to read in a list of variables from a spreadsheet; the do file will generate an extract of attributes and observations from a larger dta file. Gallup Analytics microdata serves as the example.

## Gallup Analytics Microdata

Many academic libraries subscribe to an online database called Gallup Analytics, which lets users explore and download summary statistics from a number of on-going polls and surveys conducted by the Gallup Organization, such as the US Daily Tracker poll, World Poll, and SPSS polling series. As part of the package, subscribing institutions also receive microdata files for some of the surveys, in STATA and SPSS formats. These files contain the anonymized, individual responses to the surveys. The microdata is valuable to social science researchers who use the responses to conduct statistical analyses.

Naturally, the microdata is copyrighted and licensed for non-commercial research purposes to members of the university or institution who are covered by the license agreement, and cannot be shared outside the institution. Another stipulation is that the files cannot be shared in their entirety, even for members of the licensed institution; researchers must request individual extracts of variables and observations to answer a specific research question. This poses a challenge for the data librarian, who somehow has to communicate to the researcher what’s available in the files and mediate the request. Option 1 is to share the codebooks (which are also copyrighted and can’t be publicly distributed) with the researcher and haggle back and forth via email to iron out the details of the request. Option 2 is to have a stand-alone computer set up in the library, where a researcher can come and generate their own extract from files stored on a secure, internal network. In both cases, the manual creation of the extract and the researcher’s lack of familiarity with the contents of the data makes for a tedious process.

## Create List of STATA Variables in Excel Spreadsheet

First, I created a standard set of STATA do files to output lists of all variables to a spreadsheet for the different data files. An example for the US Daily Tracker poll from pre-2018 is below. I was completely unfamiliar with STATA, but the online docs and forums taught me what I needed to pull this together.

Some commands are the same across all the do files. I use describe and then translate to create a simple text file that saves a summary from the screen that counts rows and columns. Describe gives a description of the data stored in memory, while replace is used to swap out existing variables with a new subset. Then, generate select_vars gives me codebook information about the dataset (select_vars is a variable name I created), which I sort using the name column. The export excel command is followed by the specific summary fields I wish to output; the position of the variable, data type, variable label, and the variable name itself.

```* Create variable list for Gallup US Tracker Survey 2008-2017

local y = YEAR in 1

describe,short
summarize YEAR
translate @Results gallup_tracker_`y'_summary.txt, replace

describe, replace
generate select_vars = ""
sort name

export excel position name type varlab select_vars using gallup_tracker_`y'_vars.xlsx, firstrow(variables) replace
```

The variation for this particular US Daily Tracker dataset is that the files are packaged as one file per year. I load the first file for 2008, and the do file saves the YEAR attribute as a local variable, which allows me to include the year in the summary and excel output file names. I had to run this do file for each subsequent year up to 2017. This is not a big deal as I’ll never have to repeat the process on the old files, as new data will be released in separate, new files. Other datasets imposed different requirements; the GPSS survey is packaged in eleven separate files for different surveys, and the updates are cumulative (each file contains older data plus any updates – Gallup sends us updated files a few times each year). For the GPSS, I prompt the user for input to specify the survey file name, and overwrite the previous Excel file.

With the do file in hand, you open STATA and the data file you want to process, change the working directory from the default user folder to a better location for storing the output, open the do file, and it runs and creates the variable list spreadsheet.

## Create a STATA Do File with Python and Excel

Once a researcher submits their Google form and their selected variable spreadsheet (placing an X in a dedicated column to indicate that they want to include a variable), I run the Python script below. I use the openpyxl module to read the Excel file. I have to modify the paths, spreadsheet file name, and an integer for the particular survey each time I run it. I use the os module to navigate up and down through folders to store outputs in specific places. If the researcher specifies in the Google form that they want to filter observations, for example records for specific states or age ranges, I have to add those manually but I commented out a few examples that I can copy and modify. One caveat is that you must filter using the coded variable and not its label (i.e. if a month value is coded as 2 and its label is February, I must reference the code and not the label). Reading in the requested columns is straightforward; the script identifies cells in the selection column (E) that have an X, then grabs the variable name from the adjacent column.

```# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Pull selected gallup variables from spreadsheet to create STATA Do File
Frank Donnelly / GIS and Data Librarian / Brown University
"""

import openpyxl as xl, os
from datetime import date

thedate=date.today().strftime("%m%d%Y")
surveys={1:'gallup_covid',2:'gallup_gpss',3:'gallup_tracker',4:'gallup_world'}

rpath=os.path.join('requests','test') # MODIFY BASED ON INPUT
select_file=os.path.join(rpath,'gallup_tracker_2017_vars_TEST.xlsx') #MODIFY BASED ON INPUT
survey_file=surveys[3] #MODIFY BASED ON INPUT

dofile=os.path.join(rpath,'{}_vars_{}.do'.format(survey_file,thedate))
dtafile=os.path.join(os.path.abspath(os.getcwd()),rpath,'{}_extract_{}.dta'.format(survey_file,thedate))

#MODIFY to filter by observations - DO NOT ERASE EXAMPLES - copy, then modify
obsfilter=None
# obsfilter=None
# obsfilter='keep if inlist(STATE_NAME,"CT","MA","ME","NH","RI","VT")'
# obsfilter='keep if inrange(WP1220,18,64)'
# obsfilter='keep if SC7==2 & MONTH > 6'
# obsfilter='keep if FIPS_CODE=="44007" | FIPS_CODE=="25025"'

ws = workbook['Sheet1']

# May need to modify ws col and cell values based on user input
vlist=[]
for cell in ws['E']:
if cell.value in ('x','X'):
vlist.append((ws.cell(row=cell.row, column=2).value))
outfile = open(dofile, "w")
outfile.writelines('keep ')
outfile.writelines(" ".join(vlist)+"\n")
if obsfilter==None:
pass
else:
outfile.writelines(obsfilter+"\n")
outfile.writelines('save '+dtafile+"\n")
outfile.close()
print('Created',dofile)
```

The plain text do file begins with the command keep followed by the columns, and if requested, an additional keep statement to filter by records. The final save command will direct the output to a specific location.

```keep CENREG D17A D23 D24 D5 FIPS_CODE HISPANIC INT_DATE MONTH MOTHERLODE_ID PE_WEIGHT RACE SC7 STATE_NAME WP10202 WP10208 WP10209 WP10215 WP10216 WP10229 WP10230 WP1220 WP1223 YEAR ZIPGALLUPREGION ZIPSTATE
save S:\gallup\processing\scripts\reques\test\gallup_tracker_extract_02202022.dta
```

All that remains is to open the requested data file in STATA, open the do file, and an extract is created. Visit my GitHub for the do files, Python script, and sample output. The original source data and the variable spreadsheets are NOT included due to licensing issues; if you have the original data files you can generate what I’ve described here. Sorry, I can’t share the Gallup data with you (so please don’t ask). You’ll need to contact your own university or institution to determine if you have access.